Volume 10 (01), January 2024



K. V. Chamar and Sumitra Bairagi


The district-wise census data of 2011 of different sources of drinking water among households in rural India has been used for the present research work. To understand regional variations in the access to sources of drinking water among households, percentage technique has been adopted at regional, state and district levels in rural India. The study highlights that more than two-fifth of the households in rural India has been dependent on hand pump, while nearly 18 percent households have used treated tap water. On the other hand, 13 percent of households used un-treated tap water and 12 percent un-covered wells. About eight percent households have still used the water by tube well/borehole in rural India in 2011. Similarly, it has been observed that the largest number of households, 41 percent within the premises; 46 percent near the premises; and 44 percent away the premises access to hand pump. It has been also observed that more than half of households used treated tap water in islands followed by northwestern and southern regions of India. It has been noticed that more than two-third households in eastern, three-fifth households in northern and two-fifth households in northeastern region have access to hand pumps for drinking water. Similarly, un-treated tap water has been accessible to more than one-fourth of households in southern and western regions of India. Finally, it is suggested that nearly 29 percent of total rural households in India which have to depend on un-treated tap water, un-covered well and all other sources of drinking water must be provided safe drinking water for better healthy living.


Journal’s Code

Frequency : Biannual

Language : English

ISSN (E) : 2455-2445

ISSN (P) : 2395-3160

Impact Factor

SJIF (2017) : 6.087